# Puzzles

## 12 December

The diagram to the left shows a large black square. Inside this square, two red squares have been drawn.
(The sides of the red squares are parallel to the sides of the black square; each red square shares a vertex with the black square; and the two red squares share a vertex.)
A blue quadrilateral has then been drawn with vertices at two corners of the black square and the centres of the red squares.

The area of the blue quadrilateral is 167. What is the area of the black square?

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No matter the exact size of each square, the blue quadrilateral will always fill half the square, so the area of the square is **334**.

## 2 December

Carol draws a square with area 62. She then draws the smallest possible circle that this square is contained inside.
Next, she draws the smallest possible square that her circle is contained inside. What is the area of her second square?

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By drawing an appropriate diagram, it can be seen that the small square has half the area of the large square.

Therefore the area of the large square is **124**.

## 23 December

Today's number is the area of the largest area rectangle with perimeter 46 and whose sides are all integer length.

## 2 December

Today's number is the area of the largest dodecagon that it's possible to fit inside a circle with area \(\displaystyle\frac{172\pi}3\).

## Squared circle

Each side of a square has a circle drawn on it as diameter. The square is also inscribed in a fifth circle as shown.

Find the ratio of the total area of the shaded crescents to the area
of the square.

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Let the radius of the small circles be \(r\). The are of half of one of these circles is \(\frac{1}{2}\pi r^2\).

The side of the square is \(2r\) and so the area of the square is \(4r^2\). Therefore the area of the whole shape is \((4+2\pi)r^2\).

By Pythagoras' Theorem, the radius of the large circle is \(r\sqrt{2}\). Therefore the area of the circle is \(2\pi r^2\). This means that the shaded area is \((4+2\pi)r^2 - 2\pi r^2\) or \(4r^2\).

This is the same as the area of the square, so the ratio is **1:1**.

## Two triangles

The three sides of this triangle have been split into three equal parts and three lines have been added.

What is the area of the smaller blue triangle as a fraction of the area of the original large triangle?

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Draw on the following lines parallel to those which were added in the question.

Then a grid of copies of the smaller blue triangle has been created. Now consider the three triangles which are coloured green, purple and orange in the following diagram:

Each of these traingles covers half a parallelogram made from four blue triangles. Therefore the area of each of these triangles is twice the area of the small blue triangle.

And so the blue triangle covers one seventh of the large triangle.

#### Extension

If the sides of the triangle were split into \(n\) pieces the the lines added, what would the area of the smaller blue triangle be as a fraction of the area of the original large triangle?

## Overlapping triangles

Four congruent triangles are drawn in a square.

The total area which the triangles overlap (red) is equal to the area
they don't cover (blue). What proportion of the area of the large square
does each (purple) triangle take up?

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Let \(S\) be the area of the large square, \(T\) be the area
of one of the large triangles, \(U\) be one of the red overlaps
and V be the uncovered blue square. We can write
$$S=4T-4U+V$$
as the area of the square is the total of the four triangles,
take away the overlaps as they have been double counted, add
the blue square as it has been missed.

We know that 4U=V, so

$$S=4T-V+V$$
$$S=4T.$$

Therefore one of the triangles covers one quarter of the
square.

#### Extension

Five congruent triangles are drawn in a regular pentagon. The
total area which the triangles overlap (red) is equal to the area they
don't cover (blue). What proportion of the area of the large pentagon
does each triangle take up?

\(n\) congruent triangles are drawn in a regular \(n\) sided polygon.
The
total
area which the triangles overlap is equal to the area they don't cover.
What proportion of the area of the large \(n\) sided polygon does each
triangle take up?

## Unit octagon

The diagram shows a regular octagon with sides of length 1. The octagon is divided into regions by four diagonals. What is the difference between the area of the hatched region and the area of the region shaded grey?

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Name the regions as follows:

\(E\) is a 1×1 square. Placed together, \(A\), \(C\), \(G\) and \(I\) also make a 1×1 square. \(B\) is equal to \(H\) and \(D\) is equal to \(F\).

Therefore \(B+E+F=A+C+D+G+H+I\). Therefore the hatched region is \(C\) larger than the shaded region. The area of \(C\) (and therefore the difference) is \(\frac{1}{4}\).

#### Extension

What is the difference between the shaded and the hatched regions in this dodecagon?