# Sunday Afternoon Maths LIX

## Turning squares

Each square on a chessboard contains an arrow point up, down, left or right. You start in the bottom left square. Every second you move one square in the direction shown by the arrow in your square. Just after you move, the arrow on the square you moved from rotates 90° clockwise. If an arrow would take you off the edge of the board, you stay in that square (the arrow will still rotate).

You win the game if you reach the top right square of the chessboard. Can I design a starting arrangement of arrows that will prevent you from winning?

#### Show answer

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No, I can't.

If I could, then my arrangement would cause you to follow an infinitely long pattern without visiting this pattern. As there are only a finite number of squares, within this pattern there must be a square that you visit infinitely often. The arrow on this square will point in each direction an infinite number of times, so you must also visit the squares next to this one infinitely often.

For the same reason, you must visit the squares next to them infinitely often, and the squares next to them, and so on. In this way, we see that you visit every square, including the all-important winning square, infinitely often.

## Elastic numbers

*Throughout this puzzle, expressions like \(AB\) will represent the digits of a number, not \(A\) multiplied by \(B\).*

A two-digit number \(AB\) is called *elastic* if:

- \(A\) and \(B\) are both non-zero.
- The numbers \(A0B\), \(A00B\), \(A000B\), ... are all divisible by \(AB\).

There are three elastic numbers. Can you find them?

#### Show answer & extension

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15, 18 and 45 are elastic.

15's factors are 5 and 3. 105, 1005, 10005, etc will all be multiples of 5 (because they end in 5) and multiples of 3 (as their digits add to 6). Hence they are all multiples of 15.

Similarly, 108, 1008, 10008, etc are all multiples of 9 (adding digits) and 2 (they are even), so they are multiples of 18; and 405, 4005, 40005, etc are all multiples of 9 (adding digits) and 5 (last digits are 5), so they are multiples of 45.

#### Extension

How many elastic numbers are there in other bases?

## Square pairs

Source: Maths Jam

Can you order the integers 1 to 16 so that every pair of adjacent numbers adds to a square number?

For which other numbers \(n\) is it possible to order the integers 1 to \(n\) in such a way?

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Yes: 8, 1, 15, 10, 6, 3, 13, 12, 4, 5, 11, 14, 2, 7, 9, 16.

It is clearly possible for the numbers 1 to 15 (remove the 16 from the end of the sequence above) and 1 to 17 (add 17 to the start of the sequence above).

The OEIS sequence

A090461 gives other numbers for which this is possible. It starts 15, 16, 17, 23, then includes every number from 25 onwards. It is conjectured, but not proven, that it is possible for every number above 25.