# Puzzles

## Marbles

A bag contains \(m\) blue and \(n\) yellow marbles. One marble is selected at random from the bag and its colour is noted. It is then returned to the bag along with \(k\) other marbles of the same colour. A second marble is now selected at random from the bag. What is the probability that the second marble is blue?

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Let \(M_1\) be colour of the first marble and \(M_2\) be the colour of the second marble

$$\mathbb{P}(M_2=\mathrm{blue})=\mathbb{P}(M_2=\mathrm{blue}|M_1=\mathrm{blue})\mathbb{P}(M_1=\mathrm{blue})\\+\mathbb{P}(M_2=\mathrm{blue}|M_1=\mathrm{yellow})\mathbb{P}(M_1=\mathrm{yellow})\\
=\left(\frac{m+k}{m+n+k}\right)\left(\frac{m}{m+n}\right)+\left(\frac{m}{m+n+k}\right)\left(\frac{n}{m+n}\right)\\
=\frac{m(m+k)+mn}{(m+n)(m+n+k)}\\
=\frac{m(m+n+k)}{(m+n)(m+n+k)}\\
=\frac{m}{m+n}
$$

#### Extension

A bag contains \(m\) blue and \(n\) yellow marbles. One marble is selected at random from the bag and its colour is noted. It is then returned to the bag along with \(k\) other marbles of the same colour and \(l\) marbles of the other colour. A second marble is now selected at random from the bag. What is the probability that the second marble is blue?